Public Security


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It is incumbent upon the government of Québec to ensure public security throughout the province. This protection role is assigned to the Ministère de la Sécurité publique, which administers the following sectors of activity:

  • civil protection in order to respond in emergency situations caused by natural disasters and catastrophes, in collaboration with the other ministries of the government of Québec, municipalities, and community organizations
  • policing and crime prevention in order to maintain order and protect people and their property, in collaboration with the Sûreté du Québec
  • fire protection, in collaboration with fire departments, municipalities, and community organizations
  • provincial correctional facilities
  • scientific and medicolegal expertise services

The Minister of Public Security oversees the following agencies, offices and institutions:

  • Bureau du coroner
  • Comité de déontologie policière et le Commissaire à la déontologie policière
  • Commissaire à la lutte contre la corruption (Unité permanente anticorruption)
  • Commission québécoise des libérations conditionnelles
  • École nationale de police du Québec
  • École nationale des pompiers du Québec
  • Régie des alcools, des courses et des jeux

Emergencies and civil protection

In Québec, civil protection responsibilities are clearly divided among citizens, businesses, municipalities, and the government of Québec.

In order to respond effectively to emergency situations, the Minister of Public Security sees to the application of the national civil protection plan in conjunction with the other ministers and the managers of the government bodies concerned.

The Ministère de la Sécurité publique coordinates the actions of the ministries and bodies of the government of Québec through the following entities:

  • Comité de sécurité civile du Québec
  • Organisation de la sécurité civile du Québec
  • Regional public safety organizations

When circumstances require it, the Ministère may also assist municipalities until recovery and eventually provide disaster victims, municipalities, and businesses with financial assistance.

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Police and crime prevention

The Ministère de la Sécurité publique ensures that every citizen receives police protection. It also works in conjunction with its partners from police forces, schools, communities, government bodies and universities in order to deter criminal activities, thus improving the health and security of all Quebecers.

Within the framework of its responsibilities, the Ministère

  • advises municipalities regarding the organization and management of their police forces and inspects such forces
  • investigates or mandates someone to investigate a police force
  • provides, in conjunction with the forensic science and medicine laboratory, scientific expertise for the administration of justice and support for police and legal investigations
  • promotes the holding of public education and awareness activities
  • regulates the practices of the private security industry

In Québec, police security is provided by four types of police forces:

  • the Sûreté du Québec, which is responsible for the entire territory of Québec and maintains a central intelligence service designed to fight against crime, which provides its services to other police forces
  • municipal police forces, which report to municipal authorities
  • First Nations Community Policing Services, which are generally based on a tripartite agreement involving a band council, the government of Québec and the government of Canada
  • the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, which provides investigation services on matters regarding federal laws on a national or international level
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Fire security

The Ministère de la Sécurité publique coordinates the actions of ministries and government bodies for purposes of fire prevention and fire fighting. To achieve this goal, it works with its municipal partners, which assume front-line responsibility for fire prevention and firefighting, and with the following stakeholders:

  • citizens
  • fire-fighters
  • fire-protection services and other services providing emergency response and relief to victims

In addition to ensuring that Québec’s fire-fighters receive appropriate training, the Ministère de la Sécurité publique engages in annual public awareness and educational campaigns, including Fire Prevention Week.

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Correctional services

The Ministère de la Sécurité publique has the duty to administer provincial correctional facilities and to carry out probation orders and offender-reintegration measures. It should be noted that government responsibility for the correctional system is divided between the levels of governments:

  • Government of Québec: those sentenced to terms of under two years
  • Federal Government: offenders serving sentences of two years or longer
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For further information

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